• fidelesebahizi

Ipfunwe Ndengakamere, Intwaro Igamije Kumaraho Ubunyamulenge

Updated: Sep 15, 2020

Abanyamulenge bamaze imyaka baterwa ipfunwe ry'abo baribo mu karere k'ibiyaga bigari. Ibi byatumye bamwe muribo badashaka kugaragaza ico barico.


Inkomoko y'ifoto: Prevention Conversation

Waba warigishijwe kwizera amagambo yakwirakwijwe ngo, “Abanyamulenge, imbwa z’inkazi”? I Nairobi, muri Kenya, mu myaka ya za mirongo icenda, byavuzwe yuko habayeho ibipango by’amazu byigeze kwandikwaho amagambo yuzuye urwango agira ati, “Banyamulenge, umbwa mkali,” bishatse kuvuga ngo, “Abanyamulenge, imbwa z’inkazi.” Muri iyo myaka nanone, mu gihugu gituranyi ca Tanzania urwango nk’uru rwabayeho. Gusebya Abanyamulenge byabayeho mu miji itandukanye, cane cane mu nkambi z’impunzi. U Rwanda, igihugu abanga Abanyamulenge bahora bavuga ko ari iwabo w’Abanyamulenge, ntirwasigaye inyuma ku bijanye n'iki kibazo. Ibi byateye kwigizwayo kwa benshi. Icongeyeho, Abanyamulenge babaye mu Burundi nabo bahuye n’iki kibazo co guterwa ipfunwe. Iyi nyandiko iragaruka kw’ipfunwe ndengakamere ryatewe Abanyamulenge mu bihugu bigize akarere k’ibiyaga bigari. Amateka ya Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Congo atubwira iki kuri iki kibazo?


Intambara ya mbere ya Congo (1996)


Hari abemeza yuko ipfunwe ndengakamere ryakorewe Abanyamulenge ryatangiye kubaho mu myaka ya za mirongo icenda, aha twavuga mu mwaka wa 1996, mu ntambara ya mbere ya Congo hagati y’ingabo za leta ya Zaire n’inyeshamba zo mu mutwe wa AFDL wari uyobowe na Mzee Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Iyi ntambara ntiyari isobanutse, dore ko yaje no kurwanywa mw’izina ry’Abanyamulenge. Bivugwa ko kugirirwa nabi kw’Abanyamulenge bakorerwaga n’ingabo za Zaire ariko kwatumye intambara ya mbere ya Congo ibitirirwa ("Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire," 1996).


Intambara ya mbere ya Congo yahuzaga ibihugu bitandukanye. Nkuko byemezwa na Turner (1997), ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu bwari bushigikiwe n'u Bufaransa, mu gihe Kabila yari ashigikiwe na Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika zibinyujije mu bayobozi ba Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, n'u Rwanda. Mu yandi magambo, nubwo iyi ntambara yiswe "intambara y'Abanyamulenge," hari umugambi wari uhishwe kandi wari ugoye gusobanukirwa, yuko ibibazo Abanyamulenge bari barimo muri 1996 byabaye urwitwazo gusa.


Tubibutse yuko bamwe mu basore b'Abanyamulenge bafashije umutwe wa FPR-Inkotanyi mu mugambi wo guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Habyarimana muri 1994. Amnesty International yatangaje yuko hagati mu mwaka wa 1996 uburasirazuba bwa Zaire bwaranzwemo n'uruja n'uruza rw'Abatutsi binjiraga mu gihugu rwihishwa bavuye mu Rwanda no mu Burundi ("Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire," 1996). Amnesty International yakomeje ivuga yuko igipolisi n'igisirikare bya Zaire byatangiye gufunga abaturage b'Abatutsi ahantu henshi mu gihugu, ari nabwo Abanyamulenge bahohotewe ku bwinshi ("Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire," 1996).


Ku minsi 28 y'ukwezi kwa kane, muri 1995, bitewe n’umwuka mubi wa politike wari mu gihugu, inteko ishingamategeko mfatakibanza ya Zaire i Kinshasa yatangaje ku mugaragaro yuko Abanyamulenge batakaje ubwenegihugu bwa Zaire kandi ko, hamwe n’impunzi z’Abahutu n’Abatutsi b’abimukira, bagomba koherezwa mu Rwanda cangwa mu Burundi (“First Congo War - Attacks against Tutsi and Banyamulenge civilians,” n.d.). Nkuko bigaragarira buri wese, uku kwamburwa ubwenegihugu ku mugaragaro kw'Abanyamulenge kwatumye ibihumbi by'abaturage b'Abanyamulenge bicwa mu myaka yakurikiyeho. Ku rugero, Amnesty International yatangaje yuko abaturage b'Abanyamulenge barenga 100 (abenshi bari bagizwe n'abagore n'abana) bishwe urw'agashinyaguro n'abarwanyi bo mu bwoko bw'Ababembe ahitwa Lueba na Mboko ("Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire," 1996). Ibindi bihumbi byinshi by'Abanyamulenge byishwe impfu ziteye ubwoba mu myaka yakurikiyeho, mu bihe bitandukanye, mu bice bitandukanye by'igihugu.


Itangiriro ry'ipfunwe ryo kwitwa Abanyamulenge ku bwoko bw'Abanyamulenge rirashobora kuba ryaratangiriye ku ntambara yiswe iya mbere ya Congo cangwa mbere yaho. Ijambo “Abanyamulenge” ryamamaye mw’isi hose mu buryo bwiza no mu buryo bubi. Nkuko byemezwa na Amnesty International, impunzi z'Abahutu zari zarahunze intambara yo muri 1994 mu Rwanda zaje gutererwa aho zari zarahungiye muri Zaire n'ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi binyuze mu mutwe wa AFDL muri 1996 ("Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire," 1996). Iyi ntambara ndetse n'iya kabiri yakurikiyeho muri 1998 yatumye ibihumbi byinshi by'impunzi z'Abakongomani n'Abanyarwanda zihungira mu bihugu bitandukanye bya Afurika, birimo Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, na Malawi.


Kuvugwa nabi Abanyamulenge bagiriye muri Kenya


Amakuru dukesha impunzi z'Abanyamulenge batuye muri Kenya guhera mu myaka ya za mirongo icenda, kuvugwa nabi kw’Abanyamulenge kwatangijwe n’impunzi z'Abahutu b’Abanyarwanda ndetse n’impunzi z’Abakongomani bo mu yandi moko. Izi mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda zari zarahunze igihugu cabo nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, mu gihe impunzi z’Abakongomani zari zihunze intambara ya mbere ya Congo, intambara yo mu 1996. Mu gihe aba bose basabaga ubuhunzi, bavuze yuko bahunze Abanyamulenge cangwa se icaje kwitwa intambara y’Abanyamulenge. Aya makuru yaje kuyobya benshi kandi yaje no gutera urujijo rukomeye mu bihe byakurikiyeho. Abanyakenya bumvise izi mpuruza, baratinye cane, maze batangira kugereranya ijambo Abanyamulenge n’inyamanswa y’inkazi. Bamwe mu Banyakenya nibwo batangiye gukoresha ijambo Abanyamulenge ku bipango byabo baribangikanya n’andi magambo ateye ubwoba, arimo imbwa z’inkazi, kugira ngo batinyishe abantu batashakaga ko babagana. Byavuzwe kandi yuko hari igihe kimwe ababandi b’Abanyakenya bibisha imbunda bigeze kwiyita Abanyamulenge bagamije gutinyisha abo babaga bashaka kwiba kugira ngo babatinye kurushaho (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 10 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020). Mu nkuru ye ku babandi bo muri Kenya, Mukinda (2018) yashize Abanyamulenge kuri nimero ya kane nk’umwe mu mitwe y’abo bita abatagendera ku mategeko.


Umwe mu mpunzi z’Abanyamulenge zatuye muri Kenya mu myaka ya mbere yatubwiye yuko ubwe yiboneye igipango canditsweho amagambo asa n’aya akurikira, “Iki gipango kirinzwe n’Abanyamulenge amasaha 24.” Umunsi umwe ubwo yageraga mu biro by’abinjira n’abasohoka bya Kenya, umukozi wo muri ibi biro yamubwiye yuko ibiro byabo bifite amashaka yo guha Abakongomani visas, kubera yuko badashaka kwibesha bakaziha Abanyamulenge (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 15 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020). Uyu twaganiraga yatubwiye yuko yarikumwe na mugenzi we w’Umunyamulenge, ariko uwo mukozi ntiyashoboye kumenya ko bari Abanyamulenge, yuko bamwe mu Banyakenya bibwiraga yuko Abanyamulenge ari abantu batameze nk'abandi.


Undi munsi yagenderewe n’inshuti ye y’iminsi myinshi y’Umunyakenya wakomeje avuga amagambo atari meza ku Banyamulenge. Yamubwiye yuko atashakaga kuja muri Congo kubera yuko yatinyaga ko ashobora guhurirayo n’Abanyamulenge. Akimara kuvuga atyo, uyu twaganiraga aramuseka cane. Umunyakenya amubajije ikimutera guseka, amuhishurira ko ari Umunyamulenge. Umunyakenya ngo yarikanze cane maze ntiyatinya kumubwira yuko atangajwe no kuba arebana n’Umunyamulenge amaso ku yandi. Uyu Munyakenya yari yarabaswe n’ibinyoma byavugwaga ku Banyamulenge, maze yishiramo yuko Umunyamulenge yica uwo ahuye nawe wese (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 15 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020). Uyu twaganiraga yibutse akandi kantu kabaye ku wundi Munyamulenge. Mu mukutano w’ivugabutumwa muri Kenya, ubwo Abanyakenya bariko bafungura barikumwe n’Umunyamulenge wari wagiye muri uwo mukutano. Isazi ngo yituye mu byokurya, maze Umunyakenya arasimba atuka isazi ngo, “Dore isazi igira nabi nk’Abanyamulenge” (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 15 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Nyuma y’aho impunzi z’Abanyamulenge zigereye muri Kenya ku bwinshi mu myaka mike ishize, nibwo Abanyakenya bamenye neza Abanyamulenge abo aribo, ko ari abantu basanzwe kandi bakunda Imana cane. Mu duce dutandukanye twa Nairobi, iyo Umunyakenya yumvise ijambo Umukongomani, aba yumva bavuze Umunyamulenge. Ubwo naganiraga n’impunzi z’Abanyamulenge zageze muri Kenya nyuma y’umwaka wa 2003, ntibashoboye kumenya amakuru ajanye n’uku kuvugwa nabi tuvuze haruguru. Kuvugwa nabi by’indengakamere kw’Abanyamulenge muri Kenya kweyukiye mu kirere nyuma y’aho Abanyakenya bamenyeye ko Abanyamulenge ari abantu nk’abandi.


Ipfunwe Abanyamulenge bagiriye mu Rwanda


Mu buzima busanzwe


Abanyamulenge batuye kandi bakigira mu Rwanda mu byiciro bitandukanye by'amasomo, cane cane muri segonderi (aha twavuga ababaye mu bigo by'amasomo kure y'ingo zabo bizwi nka internant), bibuka baterwa ipfunwe na bagenzi babo hakoreshejwe izina ryabo ry’Abanyamulenge. Abanyarwanda bakinishije ubwoko bw’Abanyamulenge kugeza n’aho Abanyamulenge bumva biteye isoni ubwabo. Kwitwa Umunyamulenge muri ico gihe (ubwo ni nko guhera muri 1995 kuzamura) ntibyari ipfunwe gusa, ahubwo Abanyamulenge bisanze bemeye kubyiyumvamo kugeza n'ubwo batangiye kwihisha mu Banyarwanda, nubwo hariho abo bitashobokeye. Mu gihe ikibazo nyamukuru c’ubwenegihugu muri Congo ku Banyamulenge caranzwe no kwitwa Abanyarwanda, byagaragaye neza yuko Abanyamulenge bahungiye mu Rwanda batiyumvishije na buke ko bageze iwabo. Bafashwe ugutandukanye n’abandi baturage kandi bakomeje gukumbura gakondo yabo.


Kubera yuko ntatuye mu Rwanda cangwa se ngo ipfunwe ryageze ku Banyamulenge muri iki gihugu ringereho, nahisemo kuganiriza ibyiciro bitatu by’Abanyamulenge batuye mu Rwanda. Naganiriye n’abatuye mu Rwanda imyaka myinshi, ariko bavuye muri Congo bakuze. Nongera nganira n’abagezeyo bakiri bato bakurirayo. Nyuma naganiriye n’abavukiyeyo banakurirayo (bamwe ntibagize amahirwe yo kugera muri Congo, cane cane i Mulenge, aho ababyeyi babo bakomoka). Ibi byiciro byose uko ari bitatu byagaragaje ko byatewe ipfunwe ryo kwitwa Umunyamulenge, nubwo ibyo banyuzemo byari bitandukanye.


Ipfunwe ryatewe Abanyamulenge mu buzima busanzwe ryatangiye ubwo bagenzi babo babitaga abaturage cangwa se abari bavuye ahantu hakenye, mu byaro. Imvugo yabo nayo yaje kubabera ikibazo, ndetse yaje gukoreshwa n’abaturage muri rusange b’Abanyarwanda mu gutesha Abanyamulenge agaciro. Ikinyamulenge n’ururimi rufite inkomoko mu Kinyarwanda ariko kandi rufite n’amagambo akoreshwa mu Kirundi ndetse n’izindi ndimi zo mu burasirazuba bwa Congo. Uko Abanyamulenge bavuga amwe mu magambo agize ururimi rwabo yabagize abanyamahanga muri sosiyete nyarwanda. Urugero, ijambo ryakoreshejwe cane mu kubatesha agaciro n’ijambo Umuntu. Abanyamulenge iyo bavuga iri jambo, “ntu” irumvikana cane, mu gihe mu Kinyarwanda itumvikana. Aha niho bahereye babita ba Muntu. Abaturage b’Abanyarwanda babona Abanyamulenge batambutse, bakavuga ngo, “Dore ba muntu.” Aya magambo ntabwo yakoreshejwe hagamijwe kugira ngo bamenye abo bavuga abo aribo, ahubwo yaje kuvamo guteshwa agaciro cangwa se gukurwamo “Ubunyamulenge” ku Banyamulenge. Ikimenyimenyi nuko Abanyamulenge batangiye kugira ipfunwe rw’ururimi rwabo mu ruhame. Tubibutse yuko ijambo Muntu ryakoreshejwe no mu nyeshamba z’Inkotanyi ubwo Abanyamulenge bajaga gutabara Abanyarwanda bari batashe iwabo. Umunyamulenge twavuganye winjiye mu ngabo z’Inkotanyi mu gihugu ca Uganda, mu myitozo yabereye i Nakivale, mu kwezi kwa gatatu mu 1992, yavuze yuko ijambo Muntu ryakoreshejwe hagamijwe kugira ngo bamenye abo bavugaga, yuko abantu bitirirwaga uduce bari bavuyemo. Uyu twavuganaga yemeza yuko iri jambo ritakoreshwejwe hagamijwe gutesha Abanyamulenge agaciro (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 21 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Icongeyeho, kubera yuko Abanyamulenge ari Abatutsi kandi jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda muri 1994 ikaba yarishe Abatutsi benshi cane mu gihugu, Abatutsi b’Abanyarwanda bari bamaze kurokoka babwiraga Abanyamulenge ko atari Abakongomani, ahubwo ko ari Abanyarwanda kubera yuko bari Abatutsi nkabo. Mu ruhande rumwe, ibi byarumvikanaga ko abarokotse jenoside ariko babyumvaga, ahanini kubera yuko abenshi muri bo bari impfubyi kandi kubona Abatutsi bagenzi babo wari umugisha. Mu rundi ruhande, Abanyamulenge benshi barabyakiriye ariko biza guhindurwa nuko batangiye kwigizwayo no kwitwa amazina bumvaga abatesheje agaciro.


Nyuma ya jenoside, ubutetsi bwagaragaje yuko gukoresha amoko bitemewe mu Rwanda. Ibi byahindutse nk’ikizira mu Rwanda rwose. Abanyamulenge baje kubona imyanya mu tuzi twa leta. Bamwe babaye abarimu abandi baba abacamanza. Nyuma baje gusanga yuko nta kindi kibaranga bakwiriye gukoresha, usibye kuba Umunyarwanda. Abanyamulenge bonyine nibo bahuye n’iri pfunwe, yuko, urugero, impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zari zivuye mu Burundi, muri Tanzania no muri Uganda, nta pfunwe zagize yuko zari zitashe iwabo. Abanyamulenge ntabwo bari batashe iwabo, ahubwo bari impunzi mu Rwanda. Uko bimeze kose, bamwe bagerageje gushaka uko bahunga iri pfunwe. Abanyamulenge baca umugani ngo ingenzi ntigira ihembe. Abanyamulenge bahungiye mu Rwanda bakiri abana baribuka mu 1995, ubwo bahinduraga indirimbo y’Imana ivuga ngo, “Tuzaja mw’ijuru kubana n’abariyo” bakayiririmba ngo, “Twaje mu Rwanda kubana na Kagame” (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 10 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Byibutswe yuko ipfunwe ry’Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda ryagaragaraga cane mu ruhame kuruta uko ryagaragaraga mu ngo. Hamwe n’ibyo, ubwo naganiraga n’Umunyamulenge wavukiye mu Rwanda mu 1995, ipfunwe rye yarigize cane ubwo yaganiraga n’ababyeyi be. Kimwe n’uko Abanyamulenge bavuga ijambo Umuntu, byaramugoraga igihe cose ababyeyi be bavugaga andi magambo mu Kinyamulenge bitandukanye n’uko yari yarayize ku masomo. Ababyeyi be bamubwiraga yuko ariko Abanyamulenge bayavuga. Ubwo ababyeyi be babaga bagiye kumuramutsa ku masomo, byamuteraga ikibazo. Ntabwo yashakaga ko ababyeyi be bamuvugisha mu Kinyamulenge mu ruhame, kubera yuko atashakaga ko bagenzi be bamenya ko ari Umunyamulenge. Ibi yabikoraga kubera yuko atashakaga ko bagenzi be basigara bamuseka. Kubwe, ipfunwe ryo kuba Umunyamulenge ryatangiye kumushiramo umunsi yahuye n’urubyiruko rw’Abanyamulenge rwari rwibumbiye mw’ishirahamwe Isooko, ishirahamwe ry’abasore b’Abanyamulenge muri gahunda yo guteza imbere umuco wabo mu bigo by’amasomo hirya no hino mu Rwanda. Uyu twaganiraga atekereza yuko ababyeyi be bagize uruhare mw’ipfunwe yatewe. Ntiyigishijwe aho ubwoko bwe bukomoka, umuco wabo, n’ibindi nk’ibyo. Abanyamulenge bagira imirara kandi uburyo bwonyine bwo kumenyana ubwabo binyura mu kwibwirana amazina, izina ry’umurara, izina ry’umubyeyi, irya sogokuru, sogokuruza, gukomeza. Ntiyigishijwe ibisekuruza byiwe akiri muto, yuko yatangiye kubimenya ageze mu myaka 20. Yari azi umurara wa se akamenya n’umurara wa nyina, ariko yahoraga yibwira yuko umurara we ari ugufatikanya imirara y’ababyeyi bombi. Urugero, yashoboraga kuvuga ko ari Umusama w’Umusita (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 12 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).

Hari videwo y’umugore w’Umunyamulenge imaze iminsi izunguruka ku mbuga zitangukanye za internet, cane cane urubuga rwa WhatsApp. Iyi videwo bigaragara yuko yafatiwe mu Rwanda yuko ururimi ruvugwamo ari Ikinyarwanda. Muri iyi videwo, uyu mugore agaragara avuga arakaye cane kandi kw’ijwi riri hejuru. Avuga kandi agataho impfane abantu yarikumwe nabo muri bus, yibaza impamvu ubwoko bwe bw’Abanyamulenge bushobora gufatwa uko butari. Muri iyi videwo kandi, urashobora kumva abantu bamuseka. Umwe mu bagenzi yumvikana avuga ngo, “Dayimoni irabyutse.” Iyi videwo n’urugero rw’ukuntu gusekwa hagamijwe gutesha agaciro bigira ingaruka mbi ku buzima bw’umuntu muri rusange.


Amateka yo guteshwa agaciro kw’abagore b’Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda yabateye guhindura uko babayeho. Abenshi bahinduye amazina yabo kugira ngo yumvikanye ko ari amanyarwanda. Mu Banyamulenge, izina ry’umukobwa n’ingenzi kubera yuko rigaragaza uwo ariwe n’umuco we. Ababyeyi bita abana babo b’abakobwa amazina ahanini afitanye isano n’inka. Amazina menshi y’abakobwa b’Abanyamulenge ntushobora kuyasanga mu mazina y’abakobwa b’i Rwanda. Ku rugero, Nyabihogo, Nyagaju, na Nyanzaninka. Mu gihe amazina abiri ya mbere afitanye isano n’amabara y’inka, irya gatatu rigaragaza ibyifuzo umubyeyi aba afite yuko umukobwa we azamuzanira inka namara gushakwa. Utujambo dutandukanya amazina y’abakobwa b’Abanyamulenge n’amazina y’abakobwa b’Abanyarwanda ni Nya (ikunze gukoreshwa n’abakiri bato) hamwe na Na (ikunze gukoreshwa n’abakuze). Amazina menshi y’Abanyamulengekazi atangizwa na Nya cangwa Na. Ingero ni nyinshi: Nyantungane, Nyamasomo, Nyamasoso, Nyantabara, Nyaruhanga, Nyangabire, Nyansasirwa, n’andi nk’ayo. Aya mazina kandi arashobora kuba Nantungane, Namasomo, Namasoso, Nantabara, Naruhanga, Nangabire, Nansasirwa. Abagore b’Abanyamulenge batewe ipfunwe ryo kuba Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda bahinduye amazina kugira ngo bagerageze guhunga iri pfunwe. Barasetswe kugeza n’aho bafata ibyemezo byo gukuraho Nya cangwa Na ku mazina yabo. Uwitwaga Nyamitavu, ubu yabaye Mitavu; uwitwaga Nyangabire, ubu yabaye Ngabire; uwitwaga Nyantungane, ubu yabaye Ntungane, n’andi menshi yahinduwe atyo. Ikibabaje nuko ihindurwa ry’amazina y’abakobwa b’Abanyamulenge ritahekeye mu Rwanda gusa, ahubwo ryambutse n’imipaka yarwo aho Abanyamulenge batuye hose, ndetse no muri gakondo yabo.


Muri politike


Bikekwa yuko hashobora kuba hari umugambi wa politike wihishe inyuma yo guterwa ipfunwe kw’Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda. Uyu mugambi bikekwa ko ariwo wagize uruhare bw’iri pfunwe mu Rwanda no hanze yarwo. Byemezwa yuko ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda buriho ubu bwashizeho urujijo rukomeye mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari ku bijanye n’ubwenegihugu bw’Abanyamulenge muri Congo.


Mbere yo kugira ikindi mvuga, reka nsobanure buke uko umwuka wa politike wari wifashe mu karere mu mwaka wa 1996. Nyuma ya jenoside yo mu Rwanda mu mwaka wa 1994, ibihumbi by’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu bahungiye muri Zaire, ariyo Congo y’ubu. Bamwe muri bo bari ingabo zatsinzwe abandi bakaba interahamwe. Aba bose bari Abahutu. Ntibatsinzwe ngo bahebe, ahubwo bivugwa ko bakomeje bagaruka gutera u Rwanda rwari rutangiye kuyoborwa n’ishaka rya FPR-Inkotanyi. Paul Kagame, wari vice perezida akaba na ministre w’ingabo, yafashe umwanzuro wo kubakurikira iyo bahungiye (“Q&A: DR Congo conflict,” 2012).


Dushingiye kuri videwo ya YouTube y’abitwa Friends of the Congo (2012), General James Kabarebe, wari ushinzwe operasiyo z’igisirikare c’u Rwanda, yagaragaje ko yababajwe cane n’ijambo ryari ryatangajwe na guverineri wa Kivu y’Epfo ico gihe yavuze kubijanye n’ubwoko bw’Abanyamulenge. Muri iyi videwo, Kabarebe avuga yuko guverineri wa Kivu y’Epfo yatangaje kuri radiyo y’abaturage ko ahaye Abazayirwa b’Abatutsi, byumwihariko abakomoka i Mulenge (Abanyamulenge), iminsi itandatu yonyine ngo babe bavuye mu gihugu cangwa bicwe. Igitandukanye n’ibi, Kabarebe yivuguruje nyuma y’imyaka itandatu. Ku minsi 22 y’ukwezi k’umunane, muri 2002, nkuko tubikesha Ntanyoma (2013), mu biganiro n’abanafunzi muri kaminuza ya ULK, yatangaje ku mugaragaro yuko Abanyamulenge atari Abakongomani, ko ahubwo ari Abanyarwanda. Yavuze yuko kuvuga Abanyamulenge bidatandukanye no kuvuga ngo Abanya-Mont Kigali, bivuze abatuye ku musozi wa Mont Kigali, umwe mu misozi y’i Kigali. Kabarebe yongeyeho ko Abanyamulenge bari muri Congo ku bw’inyungu zabo. Byamutwaye imyaka itandatu gusa kugira ngo yibagirwe ibyo yavuze ku Banyamulenge ubwo ingabo ze zari zateye Congo ku ncuro ya mbere. Mu bashitsi bakuru bari batumiwe mu biganiro byo muri ULK, harimo Me Azarias Ruberwa, wari umunyamabanga mukuru wa RCD, hamwe na Dr. Charles Murigande, wari umunyamabanga mukuru wa FPR-Inkotanyi. Ijambo ku burambuye ryavuzwe na Kabarebe uwo munsi rirashobora kuboneka muri La Nouvelle Relève no 448 yo guhera ku minsi 3 y’ukwezi k’umunane kugeza ku minsi 15 y’ukwezi kw’icenda, 2002.


Vlassenroot (2002) avuga ibitandukanye n’ibyo Kabarebe yavugiye muri ULK. Agira ati, bitandukanye cane n’ibyo politike yo mu karere ndetse n’abayobozi batandukanye bibwira, kubaho k’Ubunyamulenge ntabwo byavuye ku busa. Akomeza avuga yuko ijambo Abanyamulenge ryavuye ku muhana witwa i Mulenge, umuhana wa mbere ba sekuru w’Abanyamuelenge bubatse (ntiwabagaho, ahubwo nibo bawushizeho) ku butaka bwa Congo hashize imyaka myinshi, bitandukanye cane n’ibyo Kabarebe yatangaje nk’aho iri zina ryapfuye kubaho gusa ubwo yarigereranyaga n’abatuye kuri Mont Kigali ashaka kurimara imbaraga. Uru n’urugero rumwe mu bitera urujijo rukomeye ku bijanye no kubaho kw’Abanyamulenge. Biragoye kumenya indi mpamvu yatumye Kabarebe ahakana kubaho kw’Abanyamulenge. Tubibutse yuko ibi Kabarebe yabitangaje ubwo ingabo ze zarwaniraga i Mulenge n’abasirikare bo mu bwoko bw’Abanyamulenge bari bayobowe na General Patrick Masunzu, wari wigometse kuri RCD, umutwe wari ushigikiwe n’u Rwanda.


Abanyamulenge batari bake bemera yuko FPR imaze imyaka ishaka uburyo bwose bushoboka kugira ngo Abanyamulenge bose bakurwe i Mulenge bajanywe mu Rwanda nk’impunzi, umugambi wa politike kugeza nubu ntawe uramenya ico ugamije. Ku munsi umwe w’ukwezi kwa bere, mu 1997, nkuko byanditswe na Vlassenroot (2002), abayobozi bakuru ba gisirikare muri FPR bateranyirije hamwe Abanyamulenge babonwaga nk’abari imbere y’abandi muri kanimuza yari izwi nka Kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda, i Butare, babasaba ko bakura Abanyamulenge bose i Mulenge bakajanwa mu nkambi z’u Rwanda. Abenshi mu Banyamulenge bari bateraniye aho ntibishimiye iki gitekerezo. Vlassenroot (2002) akomeza avuga yuko no mu mpera z’ukwezi kwa cumi mu 1996, abayobozi bakuru mu gisirikare c’u Rwanda bahuriye na bamwe mu Banyamulenge i Buvira babasaba ko Abanyamulenge bose bokurwa i Mulenge bakajanwa mu Rwanda. Umugambi kugeza ubu utaramenyekana niwo wakuruye kutizerana hagati y’Abanyamulenge na FPR kugeza uyu munsi.


Ipfunwe hanze y’u Rwanda


Ipfunwe Abanyamulenge baterewe mu Rwanda, bibabaje kuvuga yuko, ryambutse imipaka yarwo rikabakurikirana aho bagiye hose no mu bihugu dukunze kwita byo hanze, nk’u Burayi na Amerika. Bamwe mu Banyamulenge babaye mu Rwanda imyaka myinshi biyumvisa yuko ari Abanyarwanda, wenda kubera inyungu babona mu Rwanda, nkuko Kabarebe yavuze ku Banyamulenge muri Congo. Ipfunwe ryabakurikiye no mu bihugu birangwa no kwishira ukizana nka Amerika. Urugero, mu Banyamulenge harimo abantu bamenyekanye cane mw’isi, cane cane mu muziki, bigora kuvuga mu ruhame yuko ari Abanyamulenge.


Buri gihe iyo Umunyamulenge ateye imbere akanamenyekana mu bihugu byo hanze, ibinyamakuru bikorera mu Rwanda bitangaza ko Umunyarwanda muri diapora yageze ku kintu gikomeye. Urugero, ubwo umwanditsi w’igitabo citwa How Dare the Sun Rise, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, yatumirwaga ku cicaro gikuru ca Loni, i New York, ibinyamakuru by’u Rwanda byihutiyeho kwandika yuko Uwilingiyimana ari Umunyarwandakazi. Ariko mu kiganiro c’ibibazo n’ibisubizo, Uwilingiyimana yavuze yuko ari Umukongomani akaba n’umucikacumu mu bwicanyi bwakorewe Abanyamulenge mu Gatumba. Ibinyamakuru by’u Rwanda ntibyongeye kumwandikaho.


No muri gahunda zisanzwe, nk’ubukwe, ibinyamakuru by’u Rwanda usanga bitera abantu urujijo ahanini bigamije kwirinda kuvuga izina Umunyamulenge. Ku minsi 10 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020, Iyamuremye (2020), umunyamakuru wa Inyarwanda yanditse inkuru ku bukwe bw’Abanyamulenge bwari bwabereye muri Texas. Inyarwanda yanditse ivuga yuko umuririmbyi uzwi mu Rwanda nka TMC yaririmbiye Abanyarwanda batuye muri Amerika.


Ipfunwe ryatewe Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda ryatumye habaho urujijo mu karere no hanze yako. Byibutswe yuko uru rujijo ku Banyamulenge rushobora kuba ruri mu byateje umurindi abaturanyi b’Abanyamulenge muri Congo gukomeza urugamba rwabo rwo kubita impunzi z’Abanyarwanda no gushaka kubirukana mu gihugu ca basekuruza.


Ipfunwe Abanyamulenge bagiriye mu Burundi


Abanyamulenge batewe ipfunwe no kwitwa Abanyamulenge mu Burundi, ariko iri pfunwe ntiryari rikomeye ugereranyije n'iryo batewe mu Rwanda. Naganiriye n’Umunyamulenge wabaye mu Burundi nk’impunzi guhera mu mwaka wa 1999. Ikintu ca mbere yabonye n’ukuntu abana b’Abarundi bitaga Abanyamulenge ku masomo. Babitaga Abanyamunyamu. Ubusanzwe, iri jambo nta bisobanuro rifite. N’ijambo bigaragara yuko ryakuwe mw’ijambo Abanyamulenge. Biragaragara yuko uwarihimbye atakeneye kuvuga Abanyamulenge, ahubwo agahitamo kurihina avuga Abanyamu yongeraho indi “nyamu” asiga “lenge,” noneho Abanyamunyamu riba rirabonetse. Uwarihimbye wese biragaragara yuko yari agamije gutesha Abanyamulenge agaciro, yuko iri jambo ryaciye ibintu.


Uyu twaganiraga, iri jambo yumviye mu Burundi bwa mbere ryaramugoye cane. Byageze n’aho izina rye ry’Ikinyamulenge yahawe n’ababyeyi rimutera isoni. Ntabwo yashoboye kurihindura. Umunsi umwe, umwe muri bashiki be bato yanze gusubira ku masomo kubera guhahazwa na bagenzi be bamuhora kuba yari Umunyamulengekazi. Izina rye nawe ngo ryamubereye ikibazo. Byabaye ngombwa yuko ababyeyi b’uyu mwana bamwumvisa yuko ari Umurundikazi wavukiye muri Congo. Nanone undi muvandimwe we yanze gusubira ku masomo kugeza izina rye rihinduwe, kandi ryaje guhindurwa arakunda ariga neza. Uyu twaganiraga yambwiye yuko igihe cose ku masomo bavugaga ku bijanye n’Abanyamulenge, yifuzaga ngo iyo abona aho azimirira ntibongere kumubona. Bamwe mu Banyamulenge bagerageje kwihindura Abarundi. Abatarabishoboye ngo bavugaga ko ari Abanyarwanda kugira ngo barebe ko bohisha ipfunwe baterwaga no kwitwa Abanyamulenge (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 12 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Igihe ngo carageze yisanga muri imwe muri gurupe z’Abaririmbyi b’Abarundi baririmbaga indirimbi zihimbaza Imana. Nabwo ngo yakomeje kwihisha ko ari Umunyamulenge. Ubwo impunzi z’Abanyamulenge zari zimaze kuba nyinshi mu Burundi, umunsi umwe umuyobozi wabo ngo yarabicaje abaha inama z’ukuntu bakwiriye guteza imbere umuco w’Abarundi. Uyu muyobozi ngo yatanze urugero ku Banyamulenge, ukuntu bari bamaze guhindura imiririmbire mu makanisa y’i Bujumbura bakoresheje ururimi rw’i Kinyamulenge. Ibi ngo byamukoze ku mutima cane, maze yibwira yuko ubwoko bwabo n’umuco wabo ari iby’agaciro (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 12 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020). Uyu twaganiraga yibwira yuko, kimwe n’Abanyakenya, Abarundi bari barabwiwe ibintu bibi ku Banyamulenge, maze bahita babishiramo nabi. Ibintu bibi byavuzwe ku Banyamulenge nibyo byatumye izina ryabo rigira isura mbi mu karere.


Urujijo rushingiye ku Banyamulenge muri Tanzania


Buri gihugu, nkuko twabivuze haruguru, gifite umwihariko waco ku bijanye n’ipfunwe Abanyamulenge batewe. Tanzania n’icumbi ry’imbohe z’Abanyamulenge bafatiwe mu Bibogobogo, aha ni mu karere k’i Fizi, mu burasirazuba bwa Congo. Aba Banyamulenge bafashwe n’Ababembe bakuwe mu mihana yabo, mu ntambara ya mbere ya Congo muri 1996. Bamwe mu babyeyi babo, abagabo babo, n’abavandimwe batwitswe ari bazima, mu gihe abandi batawe muri Tanganika bahambiriwe mu mipfuko yuzuye amabuye. Ababanyaze babahinduye abagore babo na bugingo nubu.


Umubare muke w’impunzi z’Abanyamulenge wahungiye muri Tanzania nyuma y’ubwicanyi Abanyamulenge bakorewe mu Gatumba mu 2004. Abanya-Tanzania ngo bari barabwiwe ko Abanyamulenge ari Abanyarwanda kandi ko buri wese yakoze igisirikare. Ku mupaka, abayobozi bashinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka ba Tanzania ngo bagenzuraga Abanyamulenge niba batari abasirikare. Babashiraga mu kato iminsi itatu batarya kugira ngo bamenye neza niba batari abasikare bihinduye impunzi nyamara baraje gutata igihugu cabo. Nyuma y’iminsi itatu, ngo bongeraga kubagenzura ngo barebe niba badafite ibimenyetso byo gukora igisirikare, nko kugira ibikomeri by’amasasu cangwa ibimenyetso byo kuba barahetse imbunda (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 13 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Uwambwiraga aya makuru yakomeje avuga yuko atekereza ko abaturage ba Tanzania bari barishizemo ko Abanyamulenge ari abicanyi. No mu gihe bagereye mu nkambi y’impunzi, izindi mpunzi ngo ntibyazoroheraga kwegera Abanyamulenge, ahanini ngo zitinya yuko zishobora kugirirwa nabi. Ndetse ngo n’abayobozi b’inkambi ntibashiraga Abanyamulenge amakenga, buri gihe ngo bibwiraga yuko umwanya uwariwo wose impunzi z’Abanyamulenge zishobora gutera inkambi. Uyu twavuganaga ahamya yuko impunzi z’Abakongomani bo mu yandi moko batuye muri iyo nkambi mbere yabo ngo aribo ba nyiri bayazana b’uru rujijo (amakuru twayahawe n’umuntu utarashatse ko amazina ye atangazwa, ku minsi 13 y’ukwezi kwa gatatu, mu 2020).


Urujijo rushingiye ku Banyamulenge muri Tanzania ntirwagarukiye mu nkambi y’impunzi gusa, ahubwo rugaragarira no mu baturage basanzwe. Muri videwo yashizwe kuri YouTube na Cloudsmedia (2018), Hasna Mwilima, umudepite mu nteko ishingamategeko ya Tanzania userukiye agace ka Kigoma y’Epfo, agaragara avuga Abanyamulenge mu gihe umutwe w’abadepite wari uteranye. Muri iyi videwo, Depite Mwalima agaragara arakaye cane, ataho impfane inzego zishinzwe umutekano za Tanzania kubera yuko hari abaturage be bakekwaho kuba abanyamahanga. Depite Mwalima avuga aya magambo mu giswahili, “Leo wananchi wa Kigoma, hatuishi na amani. Kutwa kucha tunaitwa Banyamulenge, tunaitwa Wakongo, tunaitwa Warundi.” Ati, abaturage ba Kigoma nta mahoro dufite. Uko bukeye n'uko bwije twitwa Abanyamulenge, tukitwa Abakongomani, tukitwa Abarundi. Iki n’ikimenyetso c’uko ikibazo c’urujijo rushingiye ku Banyamulenge kimeze muri Tanzania. Uru rujijo rwateye abategetsi ba Tanzania gukoresha ijambo Abanyamulenge nk’ubwenegihugu. Kuba abashinzwe umutekano ba Tanzania bahagarika abaturage babo imbere mu gihugu bakababaza niba ari Abanyamulenge, ibi biragaragaza yuko hari akazi gakomeye ko gusobanurira Abanya-Tanzania, ndetse no mu bindi bihugu bya Afurika, Umunyamulenge uwo ariwe.


Ingaruka z’ipfunwe muri sosiyete


Major na O’Brien (2005), abahanga muri za kaminiza zo muri Amerika, bavuga yuko ipfunwe rirangwa no gucisha umuntu bugufi, rikamumara agaciro, kugeza n’aho yumva yuko ubumuntu bwe bwashize asigaye ntaco amaze. Ipfunwe ngo ritera uwaritewe kuboneka nk’aho ntaco arico mu maso y’abandi bose. Ingaruka z’ipfunwe ngo zigaragarira ku mubiri w’umuntu, ariko kandi ngo zirashobora kugaragara cangwa ntizigaragare, zirashobora kugenzurwa cangwa ntizigenzurwe. Nkuko aba bahanga bakomeza babivuga, ipfunwe ngo rigaragarira cane muri sosiyete kuruta uko rigaragara ku muntu. Major na O’Brien (2005) bavuga yuko ipfunwe ryangiza ibi bikurika mu muntu: kwihesha agaciro, iterambere ry’amasomo, n’ubuzima.


Ikigo Better Health Channel ca leta y’intara ya Victoria, muri Australia, gishira hamwe ingaruka ziterwa n’ipfunwe iryo ariryo ryose. Better Health Channel ivuga yuko umuntu watewe ipfunwe yumva isoni, yiheba, kandi akishira mu kato. Izindi ngaruka zirimo kugira imbogamizi zo kugera ku bintu byinshi mu bijanye no kubona akazi, kugirirwa nabi no guhahazwa, ndetse no kwitinya (“Stigma, discrimination and mental illness,” n.d.).


Dushingiye ku byanditswe na Corrigan na Watson (2002), hari amoko abiri y’ipfunwe. Ipfunwe ryo mu ruhame rigaragarira mu busabane n’umuntu waritewe n’abandi bantu, mu gihe ipfunwe ryo mu muntu ryigaragaza iyo uwaritewe atangiye kwirenganya no kwitaho impfane bitewe n’ibyo yakorewe n’abarimuteye. Aba bashakashatsi bavuga yuko izindi ngaruka z’ipfunwe, zirimo kwiburanya no kunanirwa kugera ku nzozi umuntu yagambiriye.


Ni iki Abanyamulenge bashobora gukora kugira ngo barwanye ipfunwe?


Nshingiye ku rubuga rwa Better Health Channel, izi nama zizagufasha nuzikurikiza:


  1. Ntukemera ibyo abandi bakubwira kubirebana nawe, cane cane abafite umugambi wo kukwangisha wowe ubwawe.

  2. Ntukemerere kutamenya kw’abantu ko guhindura uko witekerezaho ubwawe.

  3. Ntukihishe abo mu bwoko bwawe, yuko kwishira mu kato udakozwa abawe bizakugiraho ingaruka kurusha uko utekereza.

  4. Ururimi rurakomeye. Ntukemere, ku rugero, yuko utajijutse cangwa watese, yuko iki gikoresho cakoreshejwe inshuro nyinshi gutesha agaciro ubumuntu bwawe.


Mu gusoza


Abanyamulenge batewe n’ipfunwe rikomeye bikozwe n’abantu babitekereje neza kandi bakanabishira mu bikorwa. Batewe ipfunwe mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari (muri Congo, mu Rwanda, mu Burundi, muri Tanzania, no muri Kenya). Urujijo ku Banyamulenge rwatewe n’ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda rwarakuze rugera ku miliyoni myinshi y’abatuye akarere k’ibiyaga bigari no hanze yako. Ipfunwe ryatewe Abanyamulenge mu Rwanda ryatumye habaho urujijo mu karere no hanze yako. Byibutswe yuko uru rujijo ku Banyamulenge rushobora kuba ruri mu byateje umurindi abaturanyi b’Abanyamulenge muri Congo gukomeza urugamba rwabo rwo kubita impunzi z’Abanyarwanda no gushaka kubirukana mu gihugu ca basekuruza. Ikibabaje, iri pfunwe ndengakamere ryakurikiye Abanyamulenge no mu bihugu byo hanze bagiyemo, ibihugu birangwa no kwishira ukizana. Ntawashidikanye yuko hariho umugambi wa politike wihishe inyuma y’iri pfunwe, nkuko twabigaragaje. Guteshwa agaciro kwagize ingaruka zikomeye ku Banyamulenge mw’isi yose. Mu zindi ntambara Abanyamulenge bahanganye nazo, ntakindi cakorwa kijanye no guhangana n’iri pfunwe, usibye kwemera uwo uriwe no kwanga ibikuvugwaho bigamije kugutesha agaciro.


Ibyo twifashishije mu gutegura iyi nyandiko (references)


Amnesty International. (1996, 20 December). Hidden from scrutiny: human rights abuses in eastern Zaire. https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/164000/afr620291996en.pdf


BBC. (2012, 20 November). Q&A: DR Congo conflict. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-11108589

Corrigan, P.W. & Watson, A.C. (2002). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry, 1(1), 16-20.


Cloudsmedia. (2018, 4 May). “Wananchi wa Kigoma kuitwa Wacongo/Warundi” mbunge awasha moto bungeni [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCIV6SAkGdU


Friends of the Congo. (2012, 31 July). James Kabarebe - Rwandan Minister of Defense - Speaks of the days he was DRC Army Chief of Staff [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mECN7JSsnxY


Iyamuremye, J. (2020). TMC yaririmbye mu bukwe bw’Abanyarwanda batuye muri Amerika-AMAFOTO. Inyarwanda.com. Retrieved from http://inyarwanda.com/inkuru/95842/tmc-yaririmbye-mu-bukwe-bwabanyarwanda-batuye-muri-amerika-amafoto-95842.html


Major, B. & O’Brien, L.T. (2005). The Social Psychology of Stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 393-421. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.07013


Mapping Report. (n.d.). First Congo War - Attacks against Tutsi and Banyamulenge civilians. http://www.mapping-report.org/en/1st-congo-war-attacks-against-tutsi-and-banyamulenge-civilians/


Mukinda, F. (2018). Interior CS Fred Matiang'i lists NRM as an outlawed group. Daily Nation. Retrieved from https://www.nation.co.ke/news/Fred-Matiangi-NRM-outlawed-group-/1056-4284940-xevhguz/index.html


Ntanyoma, D. (2013). Banyamulenge, opportunism, and superiority/inferiority complex: What expressed James Kabarebe at Kigali Independent University (ULK). Retrieved from https://edrcrdf.wordpress.com/2013/12/21/banyamulenge-opportunism-and-superiorityinferiority-complex-what-expressed-james-kabarebe-at-kigali-independent-university-ulk/


Stigma, discrimination and mental illness. (n.d). Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/servicesandsupport/stigma-discrimination-and-mental-illness


Turner, T. (1997). Kabila Returns, In a Cloud of Uncertainty. African Studies Quarterly, 1(3), 23-37. http://asq.africa.ufl.edu/files/Turner-Vol-1-Issue-3.pdf


Vlassenroot, K. (2002). Citizenship, Identity Formation & Conflict in South Kivu:The Case of the Banyamulenge. Review of African Political Economy, 29(93-94), 499-516. https://doi.org/10.1080/03056240208704635


Fidele Sebahizi

PhD Student

Criminal Justice: Homeland Security

Helms School of Government

Liberty University, Virginia, United States

fidele.sebahizi@gmail.com

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